What is the difference between circuit court and district court?

In the federal court system, district courts are the lowest-level courts. They conduct trials, among other things. Circuit courts are appellate courts. They do not conduct trials. Instead, they rule on appeals and legal/constitutional issues raised by the district courts. Above the circuit courts is the U.S. Supreme Court. The Supreme Court rules on legal and constitutional issues raised by the circuit courts.

If you're talking about the state court system, then your guess is as good as mine. All states have their own terms for their trial courts and appellate courts, and it is not necessarily "district court" and "circuit court." In California, for instance, courts are called Superior Court, Court of Appeals, and Supreme Court.
District Courts are part of the US Court system
Circuit courts are part of the state court system.
That all depends on the jurisdiction. Some county courts are called circuit courts, some district courts. The lowest federal courts are called district courts, but they are divided into circuits... the names are all over the place and there is no inherrent difference.
Depends on the jurisdiction.

In some states, the term "district court" refers to small claims courts, or county-level courts, while "circuits" refer to larger regions within the state or to state-level courts.

Under the federal system, District Courts are the primary trial courts, and the Circuit Courts of Appeals are the intermediate level appellate courts.

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